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Christofle; An Historical Outline by patrick Today, mention of the name Christofle evokes both the elegance of a bygone era and the concept of innovative modern design. The story of this renowned firm dates from when the young Charles Christofle took the reins of his family’s small jewelry workshop in the Marais district of Paris. Plaque, Antoine Tard 19th Cent. Rosine Bouilhet-Christofle, Charles used his keen managerial skills to enlarge the enterprise and win commissions at home in France and from as far afield as Madagascar and South America.
A business visionary, Charles made a brilliant strategic move came in when he negotiated a license giving him the French rights to the electroplating patents of George and Richard Elkington of Birmingham, England. This, along with the patents of the French chemist Count Henri de Ruolz, enabled Christofle, in , to build a technologically advanced manufacturing plant for plated goods.
This is a list of American silver marks and solid American silver. Other lists include silver-plated wares and pewter. It will not help you to identify other silver. Four or five small pictorial marks usually indicate England as the country of origin. For example, the leopard’s head indicates England. Become familiar with the English king or queen’s head mark as an indication of age.
Sheffield Plate is a cheaper substitute for sterling, produced by fusing sheets of silver to the top and bottom of a sheet of copper or base metal. This ‘silver sandwich’ was then worked into finished pieces. At first it was only put on one side and later was on top and bottom. Modern electroplating was invented by Italian chemist Luigi V. Brugnatelli used his colleague Alessandro Volta’s invention of five years earlier, the voltaic pile, to facilitate the first electrodeposition.
Unfortunately, Brugnatelli’s inventions were repressed by the French Academy of Sciences and did not become used in general industry for the following thirty years. Silver plate or electroplate is formed when a thin layer of pure or sterling silver is deposited electrolytically on the surface of a base metal. By , scientists in Britain and Russia had independently devised metal deposition processes similar to Brugnatelli’s for the copper electroplating of printing press plates.
Soon after, John Wright of Birmingham, England, discovered that potassium cyanide was a suitable electrolyte for gold and silver electroplating. Wright’s associates, George Elkington and Henry Elkington were awarded the first patents for electroplating in
Marked by the inscription “WMF” or “W. Note the special shape of the “F” letter. The length of “WMF” or “W.
Dating gorham silver plate marks. Silver Collector is now Closed. Dating gorham silver plate marks.. Posted on By Kizshura. Another mark is the head of the reigning monarch. Photos will not be returned. You can find the mark at the Encyclopedia of Silver Marks website to compare it with yours. Any help would be appreciated.
The history of this foundry is well documented [1,2,3]. The first foundry was commercially more successful, while the second one was using a more advanced technology of galvanic silver deposition, which was first applied in Esslingen by the German chemist Carl Haegele in , the brother-in-law of Alfred Ritter. In the same year the Esslingen factory was dismantled and its equipment was incorporated into the Geislingen foundry.
During the next thirty years WMF experienced a period of rapid expansion, which lasted until the beginning of the World War in This WMF branch was mostly importing the base-metal items from Geislingen, performing silver-plating and then selling them in Russia under their own marks, see my recent article in ASCAS Newsletter . This firm like R. Plewkiewicz company would stay under WMF until and would also produce items under its own mark. The export of silver-plated table ware and domestic items continuously grew, which is testified by the publishing of WMF catalogues in three languages.
Three consecutive editions of the English WMF catalogue were published in , and in In , the number of employees working only at Geislingen factory reaches and WMF became the largest industry producer in whole Wurtemberg. A view of Geislingen factory taken from the WMF headed form. The WMF silver-plated production made in around is extremely popular among western antiques collectors.
This is because these tableware and household items are considered as the best samples of Art Nouveau style, which is also known as Jugendstil in Germany and Secession in Austro-Hungary.
My name is David Whitten. Where was it made? What was the name of the company or factory where it was produced? How old is it? Was it mass-produced by machine methods? What type of glass is it made of?
2) I have collected three dated WMF products with GEISLINGEN mark, a 0,3 L silver-plated teapot, dated , and two 20 cm long silver-plated forks, each dated 3) I purchased a decorative silver-plated vase, bearing the WMFM mark and dated , see the photo above.
A more complete listing of the mark variations can be found in Charles H. Carpenter’s fine book, “Tiffany Silver”. The examples illustrated here include only John C. Moore’s mark, some others were: This practice continued until the mid ‘s. Although America was in a deep economic recession, the store soon acquired a respected name and flourished with its quality merchandise imported from Europe, India and the Orient.
In , a new partner, J. The first of the Tiffany “Blue Book” catalogs appeared in and with it the first indications of silver merchandise carried; a small range of personal items and all, almost certainly, imported. The firm expanded to larger quarters at Broadway in , the move enabled a significant increase in the retailing of silver and jewelry. It is here that American made silver finally took its place alongside the Tiffany name.
The goods were made mostly by New York City silversmiths and often bore their maker’s marks, as well as the Tiffany retailer’s mark.
In addition, in some cases the rhombus with “N” letter is used. Such system of marking is similar to that used by Fraget in the same period. It differs from the previous mark No. The size of the oval is about 7 mm x 9 mm. Similar to the mark No.
Also has a section of silver plate marks, which can sometimes be even more obscure and harder to identify than sterling silver maker’s marks. 03 of Online Encyclopedia of American Silver Marks. If you’re sure your piece is American made, this is a great place to start your research. This collection of American manufacturers and retailers of.
People aren’t necessarily looking only for sterling; they just want to know what they’re buying. Most of the time, you can find the answer simply by turning over the teaspoon, fish fork, ice cream saw, or cheese scoop antique flatware is that specialized. On the reverse side, you usually find an indented mark or series of marks that holds a wealth of information about the item — not only what it’s made of, but sometimes also where, when, and by whom it was made. This applies to hollowware — such as cups, bowls, teapots, and vases — too.
The first step in deciphering these marks is to learn what kinds of silver are out there. Some of the oldest American silver is coin, which contains an amount of the precious metal that was set by the U. Mint for coinage after the American Revolution: Coin made from to is composed of at least Sterling, in contrast, must be at least This standard — Because of its age and beauty, a piece made from coin can sometimes be worth more than American sterling. Silver plate — a coating of pure silver on a base metal such as copper or nickel silver, which is actually an alloy of nickel, copper, and zinc — was a later development.
Various forms date to the 18th century. Electroplating processes were invented in England in the s and s; this method is still used.
Now I would like to offer some tips on how to determine whether a given object is silver, Old Sheffield Plate or silverplate. In England silver has been marked in some manner since the 12th century when it was first regulated by Parliament. The marks made it possible to trace the maker and the place of manufacture. This helped to protect the consumer, for if it was determined that the silver object was not actually pure enough to be marked as silver, the culprit could be found and punishment could be meted out.
As silver objects made before are quite rare, I shall restrict my comments to those made after that date. In Parliament established the standard for purity for sterling silver and instituted a mark indicating that an item is of sufficient purity to be deemed sterling.
WMF is the abbreviation for Württembergische Metallwarenfabrik, which means Württemberg Metal Factory and was created in in the small town of Geislingen on the river Steige (Geislingen an der Steige), after the succesful merger of two smaller silver plate foundries.
Josefsen The strong emphasis on enamel on silver that gave Norwegian goldsmiths their reputation made Norwegian silver a growing industry, and meant a lot for the export. This is especially true for the jewelry. Today one can find mid-century enameled jewelry from Norway anywhere in the world. Although Norwegian silver should always be marked, it usually takes some knowledge to decode the different hallmarks that appear. This article gives some guidelines on the subject of hallmarks on modern Norwegian silver.
The emphasis will be on mid-century enameled jewelry, but as the same hallmarks also appear on other jewelry and silver items, the article may also be useful in a broader sense. There are no city stamps or date letters on modern Norwegian silver. Early pieces are sometimes marked with the year, e. However, since this has been a question of company policy there are no rules for this.
When the word Norway or Norge is not stated, the first clue to identification of Norwegian silver is the content mark that gives the quantity of pure silver in the piece. This is to guarantee that the content of silver is not lower than stated. For the collector this makers mark is an important clue to the identification of the piece. Other marks that appear on Norwegian silver can be designers marks, initials or symbols referring to the designer, or the abbreviation ‘inv’.